• Hikmat Dangol

    • २९ श्रावण २०७७, बिहीबार १०:०५

    Covid-19 corona virus and some prevention

    Hello, it’s me Shambhu Bohara from Ktm, student of microbiology and biochemistry. I am going to give a brief introduction of Covid-19 corona virus. From the end of December 2019, majority of the countries in the world have been in lockdown condition. Our country Nepal has been also facing the same condition as others since last 4 months. I have passed around twenty spring seasons but never have to face such a condition. Lockdown is such a condition during which people are not allowed to go outside randomly/unnecessarily. Hence during this period all educational institutions, industries, hostels, restaurants, lodges, agriculture sectors business activities, courts etc. remain closed. This is the first time we have ever faced such a captive situation. This condition is created due to Nebel corona virus.

    Lockdown is the best way not to let it transfer from person to person. Now let me talk about corona virus. It was seen first time from Wuhan of China on 31december 2019 so called COVID-19 by WHO. What is the source of this virus? or from where this virus originated can’t be known or scientifically proved but some virologists declared that it must be originated from the animals like bats, snakes, rats etc. as this virus is an animal virus. As a student of microbiology I want to add some information about virus and corona virus as follows.

    The term virus is derived from Latin word VIRION, which means fully assembled viral structure capable of causing infection. -Branch of microbiology dealing with the study of virus is called VIROLOGY -Stanley is known as father of virology. -Virus is connecting link between living and non living things as it possesses characters of both. -It’s main living character is that it contains genetic material either DNA (de-ox ribose nucleic acid) or RNA (ribose nucleic acid), while non- living feature is that it can be crystallized. -Each virus has 3 structures: envelope, capsid and genetic material.

    Now let me talk about corona virus -Generally plant virus contains DNA where as plant virus contains RNA as genetic material with some exceptions. -Though Corona virus is an animal virus contains single stranded RNA (ssRNA ) as genetic material. -This virus is similar to that of Severe Aquate Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) virus, which was seen in 2003 A.D. but its spreading capacity is nearly ten times more than that of SARS. -up to now more than 20 million people in the world have been infected by this virus, around seven lacs and five thousands have passed away (source-world meter) -America, Brazil, India Germany, Russia are greatly affected by this virus. In Nepal, more than twenty-four thousands people have been infected out of them ninety one passed away, more than sixteen thousands have been discharged. The death rate of Nepal is very low in comparison to other countries and discharging rate is high than others countries.
    Till the date, not a single vaccine or medicine has been discovered though scientists, doctors are researching whole days and nights. So staying at self quarantine, use of masks, sanitizer and maintaining the physical distance are only the preventive measures. -But Russia has successfully passed the fourth stages of vaccine examination, and many others countries are in third phage of vaccine examination -Recent researches tell that the countries where Bacillus Calmatte Guerin (BCG -vaccine against TB) vaccine is compulsory are not greatly affected than the countries where it is not compulsory. So this may be a proper reason that Nepal has been less affected than others. -Not only that, when BCG vaccine is injected to the patients infected by corona, has played major role or resulted positive response. -Recent researches also tell that if Nepalese are infected by corona by chance then a critical condition may not occur in such a way that infected patients may not require intensive care unit (ICU). That is why the death rate is very low in Nepal as compared to others countries.
    Corona virus stays on our respiratory tract RT). So a sample is taken from mouth or nose called or pharyngeal or nasopharyngeal swab respectively. As corona virus is an enveloped virus (possesses a protective layer),when enters in the stomach through respiratory tract then it’s envelope dissolves due to chemicals secreted by stomach ,So this virus can’t affect without envelope.
    Now I am going to discuss about diagnostic method of this virus. -There are many methods to check whether a person is infected by virus or not but we can apply mainly two methods as given follows:
    1: By Rapid Diagnostic Test(RDT)method -It is just preliminary test as it doesn’t conform that a particular one is infected by virus or not. -This method is not reliable. -In this method, blood is taken as a sample and kept it on a kit consisting of points B (that is buffer solution) S (sample), C control), IgG (antibody-G) and IgM (antibody-M). -Named so as it gives result fast that is within 10-15 minutes. -On diagnosing, if the sample and buffer move upwards by capillary action, way is right.

    If not not so the process is wrong. -On diagnosing, if there is remark on IgG or IgM then particular sample is said to be positive and if there is remark on only point C then said to be negative. -If there is remark on IgG,it can be concluded that the person is infected by virus earlier where as if remark on IgM then the person is infected recently. -Antibody is also called immunoglobulin or agglutinin, which are of 5types among them only two antibodies are functioning in this method.. -IgG is the most abundant, has lowest molecular weight and cross the placenta where as IgM has highest molecular weight, involve in acute infections.

    2: By Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR ) method -PCR is highly cost machine ,this method is also known as DNA amplification method. -In this method, sample is taken from respiratory tract of suspected one that is either or pharyngeal or nasopharyngeal swab, protected by Viral Transfer Media (VTM). -As this virus is RNA virus. So DNA must be synthesized during diagnosing by a process called reverse transcription with the help of reverse transcriptase enzyme. This phenomenon is also known as Teminism. -During diagnosing, copies of DNA must be synthesized by a process called replication or DNA amplification. While diagnosing, if it detects the genetic material of the virus then said to be positive. Look at how powerful and harmful this virus is!!! The most developed countries like America India Germany, Russia, and Brazil etc also are failing to fight against it though they have developed / advanced technology. It creates a challenge upon whole medical science as no one can make a vaccine against it.
    Finally, I request to all, please don’t go outside unnecessarily. It can collapse the whole nation due to ones’ carelessness. Please use sanitizer, mask and maintain the social distance and please keep in your mind that prevention is better than cure. And may the vaccine be discovered as soon as possible.

    Shambhu Bohara
    Former student of Pashupati Mitra Secondary School
    Chabahil Kathmandu Nepal

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