• Hikmat Dangol

    • १७ श्रावण २०७७, शनिबार ०९:११


    -Rajan Kumar KC

    -Baburam Ghimire

    – Nijina Dangol

    Teacher helping kids with computers in elementary school

    “NOT all fingers are of same length”. Like all fingers in our hand are not of equal size or are not similar, all parents and teachers should understand the fact that all children at home or in school are different in nature by birth or by situation. Some children may be brilliant and quick to understand and respond as accordingly but there are many such children who need to be instructed again and again. They may be naturally retarded or sometimes, it is their circumstance that push them becoming so. Many are deprived of various opportunities of being loved, cared and living a good life. Whatever may be the reason, all children are to be treated equally and given opportunity to grow in an environment where they love to learn as well as smile. This is the right of every child. So, considering this, we are conducting a case study that will help such students SMILE.

    Viswo Niketan School is a located in Kathmandu district which has nearly about 2500 students. The annual report card had recently been distributed. Among them, Hari Krishna Humagain is one student who is promoted to class 10 from 9, although he had failed in 9 subjects. He is different so, cannot be compared with other friends. He is an introvert and is lean and tiny in his physical appearance. To look back at his family background, he lives in Sukumbashi area. It is his sister’s work in small private sector and his father’s laborer work that is able to run his home. He is the youngest among three. This one another sister has just completed SEE exam and both of them were also average students. When we asked his father about his son, he replied that he wants his son to get education that would pay him for his at least one meal. He also adds that his son, Hari Krishna loves to use mobile and different apps in it but he doesn’t have mobile.

    Though, Hari Krishna has been admitted in class 10, he doesn’t like going to school. He would have loved going only if he was allowed using mobile there but using of mobile is prohibited in his school. He is left alone in his family. He has no mother who could prepare his food; his sisters are busy in their life schedule and his father at his work. Only if he had mobile, he would have smiled towards life, but because of poverty, he has to step back. This has become the problems of many students like him and is pushed towards darkness and frustration. Hence, this case study is based on him. And the method of JUST-IN-TIME-TEACHING (JITT) can be applied as solution.

    Meaning and definition:
    Hari Krishna Humagain, 11 INCREASING HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT INTEREST IN SCIENCE: AN ACTION RESEARCH STUDY years, though is child pushed into darkness, loves studying. He is in need of immense love and care. The child may be fond of this technique. This may also help him to get interested in attending school. So, let us now know the meaning of Just-In-Time-Teaching.
    JITT is a teaching and learning strategy designed to promote the use of class time for more active learning. This is developed by Gregor Novak and colleagues. JITT relies on a feedback that takes place between web-based learning materials and the classroom (Novak et al., 1999). In this method, students prepare for class by reading from the textbook or using other resources posted to the web and by completing assignments (called Warm-Ups and Puzzles) online. These assignments often have complex answers. The involvement of student outside the class serves as preparation for more complete work in class. The students’ answers are delivered to the instructor a few hours before class starts, allowing the instructor to adapt the lesson as needed. JITT also allows the instructor to create an interactive classroom environment that emphasizes active learning and co-operative problem solving.

    In the above paragraph, we have mentioned about puzzles and warm-ups which act as an exercises of this method. Warm-ups are short, web-based assignments designed for students to complete before receiving instruction on a topic. They encourage students to think about the upcoming lesson and to answer a few simple questions before class which prepare them to develop more complex answers in co-operative groups in class. Class time can focus on the points for which students need more help. Similarly, puzzles are short, web-based assignments that are designed to help structure a wrap-up session on a topic that has already been covered in a class.

    ​Therefore, the goal of the JITT assignments is to make students able to come to class prepared, engaged, and motivated. So, this method will benefit this child in all ways. Letting him to use the mobile will in one way fulfill his need as well as at the same time he will be learning from the web pages too.

    Students like Hari Krishna are many in our country that chooses to remain in darkness rather to be enlightened with knowledge. Such problems are seen commonly these days among students. We, as teachers who have completely been involved in teaching profession should find solutions to such issues. We are extending our hands to it through this case study. If such problem is solved, not only such students’ problems are solved but, this would be beneficial to the whole country as well. Also, the duties on part of teachers would also seem complete. The solution may seem to be easier but it can be solved only through collaboration of experienced teachers, related parents, neighbors, friends and the child him/herself. Using JITT among such problematic student will be effective and we believe, this case can be related to children in national level and find solution for it.
    For this, we need to know the reason of the need of JITT.

    Need and importance of JITT

    JITT improves students’ learning and increases in class teaching efficiency and effectiveness. JITT incorporates research-based knowledge about effective teaching and learning practices. JITT helps to improve the perception of students in class. It enhances motivation towards learning. It promotes ongoing formative assessment of student learning through instructor and students as well. The target of student learning gaps is informed in-class activities. Therefore, the above points give us the clear idea about the significance of JITT in education sector.

    Source of Data
    Babu Ram Ghimire choose to perform our case study in this school, Viswo Niketan and the main concern in this case study is the student Hari Krishna. Baburam Ghimire has been a teacher of this school since 13 years and he is also one of the teachers of Hari Krishna. Many things were done to improve the condition of this student, but, nothing much have been seen in the child. We got to know and interact with the child’s family members and though some questions, we tried to find and analyze the reasons behind such behaviors of the child. After several discussions, we along with his family members came with the solution of JITT method. Therefore, it is very important to know the method of using JITT.
    A key to successful implementation of JITT is in developing a set of effective questions by the teachers of Hari Krishna and can be posted online for him to answer before the next class. The questions are to be opened ended and Hari Krishna requires reading a text book, chapter or article or analyzing a video or completing a simulation or analyzing data that is related to the material and are to be addressed during the next class period. For each JITT exercise, teachers will post such JITT question in a course management system and student will respond online few hours before class. The teachers will post deadline but before class, teacher will examine student’s responses and group them into clusters reflecting similar thinking processes, and select a representative sample of responses to show in class. The teacher also uses the student responses to developed instructive in-class activities targeting gaps identified in the JITT responses.

    Through this method of JITT, the problems of many such students in a nationwide can be solved. He represents all those students and is one of the samples how we can use this method effectively in such similar students. We can make him a perfect and better Hari Krishna Humagain by improving conditions at his home as well as by using this teaching practice. In our aim, practice of JITT would be best. Besides this, we can also use following steps to motivate such students.
    To keep the students interested in learning, students’ names should be known and should be used as often as possible. The class should be planned every day. Attention to the strengths and weaknesses of each student’s must be given. The setting of the room should be in a U-shaped so that interaction is encouraged. Different strategies for instructions like lectures, demonstrations, discussion, case studies, group works must be used. Similarly, the objectives of lesson must be made clear to the students. The teachers are expected to move as they teach. Many examples are to be given so that the class is relevant. This ensures students see how the contents relate to them and the world around them. Teachers are to be expressive, smiling and be able to put some excitement in their speech. Students must be encouraged to share their ideas and comments. They should be provided with opportunities to speak in the classes. Eye contact will make them feel being listened. If the exams are conducted, then it should be valid and reliable. Feedback from students should be welcomed so that they feel being involved.

    ​To apply JITT method, we also planned to conduct the class of Hari Krishna. On the very first day, Babu Ram sir was requested to take his class as usual. The principal and the other two members of this case study witnessed the class as observers. Hari Krishna showed no interest at all while most of the other students were attentive. The next day, Babu Ram sir assigned the task of finding the meaning of “symbiosis” in Environmental Science. This time he gave Hari Krishna to use Babu Ram sir’s own Mobile to surf the meaning of it. We could see SMILE in his face with glowing eyes. He was so much interested in this topic and even described to his friends the pictures that he saw. The same day the child was given an assignment of surfing the next topic, “Ecosystem” for the next day. His assignment the next day was very proper.

    Cognitive Evaluation Theory
    This theory states that allocating extrinsic rewards for behavior that had been previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation. When looking at task, we evaluate in terms of how well it meets our need to feel competent and in control. If we think we are able to complete the task, we will be intrinsically motivated to complete the task, requiring no further external motivation. The theory states the effects of external consequences because of intrinsic motivation. The theory can be explained in the figure below:

    The above picture shows the phases of Cognitive Evaluation Theory. The first stage is a motivation where a person does not feel like doing anything. He is not motivated to do anything. The second stage is external regulation. This is the least autonomous extrinsic motivation. It is done for the external rewards. In interjected regulation, the action is done but is not fully accepted as one’s. It is also extrinsic motivation. The fourth phase, regulation through identification is a more autonomously driven form of extrinsic motivation. It involves consciously valuing a goal or regulation so that said action is accepted as personally important. The next stage is integrated regulation which is a form of extrinsic motivation. The identified strategies get similar with the person’s own values and needs. The last stage is the fully intrinsic motivation where a person does things not because for rewards but because he enjoys doing it.

    Teacher among kids with computers in elementary school class

    ​We can apply this theory on Hari Krishna Humagain to motivate him to do better and work hard. Hari Krishna Humagain was actually in a first phase, a motivation, where he is not motivated at all and he had no interest to do anything. He was very frustrated towards his life. When we visited the school and talked to him, we came to know that he had been so because he cannot use mobiles like his other friends did. His family could not afford mobiles because of poverty and he felt more separated because of this reason. So, we discussed with his family and the teachers in the school and used the strategy of JITT method. We planned to use this strategy as a reward factor to the child. The child was supposed to use the internet in the mobile and get certain assignment done. If he did this well, he was allowed to use the mobile the next day too, which was a reward for him. After doing this, we found the boy completing his task and he completed it only for one reason and that was the reward. So, this was the second phase of the theory, external regulation. As he repeated this work again and again, enters in the third phase, i.e., interjected regulation. The child then realizes valuing a goal or regulation so he kept one working for the goal which was completing a task. So, this is the fourth stage where the child still works only to get rewards. Then, in integrated regulation, the behavior of a child was found to be congruent with the planned strategy by teachers. He seemed to improve by then. The last stage is the intrinsic motivation where the child was internally motivated of doing assignments not only for the reward but because he had now realized that he needed to do for himself.

    Through this case study, we have come to know that JITT is a student centered method. The teachers should be energetic and practical. Teachers are to act as facilitators without using any corporal punishment. Teachers should be researchable about the problems faced by students and gain a power to take proper decision as a solution. Teachers are also to be updated with the new teaching methods. For the better result, application of JITT method will be best to help all children in the country. Many schools have a slogan of not using 3M. But among these, mobile should be allowed and applied. After this study, the principal and teachers of Viswo Niketan are convinced to make students facilitated with internet and mobile. The management is trying to find the best solution against the misuse of such facility. Government must support economically downward children to provide such facilities as this could help the problem in nationwide. Parent’s awareness is also necessary to improve educational achievements in this regard. All these concluded statements are also to be implemented by the concerned authority in the family, the school and the government if we really want the children to SMILE.

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